BECT/Landscaping literature review

A BECT literature review is a proven means for assembling information in multiple dimensions, which include:

  • Burden of illness
  • Economic burden
  • Clinical burden
  • Treatment pathways and guidelines

The technique is particularly useful in providing an overview of the clinical, treatment and economic landscape in a specific disease area. These documents are essential in value message development.

Health economic modelling

PHMR has experience building both cost effectiveness and budget impact models to meet the specifications of HTA bodies. Our experienced health economists and modellers use commercial experience and scientific approaches to produce highly credible results.

Cost effectiveness models

Increasingly, cost effectiveness analysis is an integral part of the reimbursement process, with national and regional reimbursement bodies often setting formal requirements for model specifications in HTA submissions.

Budget impact modelling

Budget impact modelling can help local and national health care decision-makers assess the financial impact of formulary and reimbursement decisions.

Clinical trial support

Considerations for evidence generation and synthesis must be effectively planned in early product development to ensure relevant clinical trial design and appropriate data collection through all appropriate means is available to support economic models and HTA submissions.

The PHMR team has detailed relevant knowledge of the specific data requirements of HTA bodies and can offer a range of evidence generation services that may be useful in facilitating effective clinical trial design.

PRO development

Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) represent an increasingly important aspect of the submission process. PHMR has expertise in helping companies collect appropriate PRO data. We have experience using a number of disease-specific PRO instruments, treatment compliance measures and patient preference questionnaires. In addition, we are well-acquainted with the use of generic health status measures such as the SF-36 and multi-attribute utility scales such as the EQ-5D. We also have in-depth experience in the collection of resource-use data in prospective trials.

International claims and outcomes database analysis

PHMR has experience in using international claims and outcomes databases to help clients generate an evidence base according to product needs. Outcomes studies can reflect day-to-day clinical practice and patient populations. Our expert staff have worked with various databases to build credible and reliable models to support HTAs and communicate value.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are now essential tools for identifying and synthesising evidence. PHMR uses experienced systematic reviewers and medical librarians to ensure methodologies align with the specific guidelines provided by HTA agencies and in addition to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.

PHMR staff have relevant experience in conducting all stages of systematic reviews to a high level, from protocol development to establish PICOS elements through to interpretation and communication of results in verbal and written format. We can also help you prepare manuscripts for peer-review submission in accordance with your publication compliance processes.

Observational studies and patient registries

Sometimes it is difficult to collect health outcomes information in comparative studies, e.g when estimating the cost of an uncommon event or when a 'piggy-back' study would require unhelpful changes in the study design. In these cases, observational studies and patient registries can be used to generate additional supportive data to be used in combination with data from RCTs.

Related case studies

Related case studies 


The PHMR team worked closely with a client who were looking to communicate the value of their product for abdominal surgery procedures.


The client were looking for an innovative method for account managers to demonstrate economic value of their product to hospital purchasers or national/regional budget holders. 


The PHMR team designed and developed a cost calculator/cost off-set model to demonstrate the cost benefits of using the client’s product for the UK and Germany for two types of stakeholders with differing budgetary requirements. The model addressed the specific economic value drivers that were of importance to the client. The model was also designed to be adaptable in the field and respond to the specific data requirements of the budget holder and the locale for which the analysis was provided.


The model proved to be an effective solution to the client’s requirements and received positive feedback from users. A key element of the model was a clear understanding of the interaction between the account manager and budget holders. A storyboard approach was used which allowed neither the underlying technology nor the model to drive the user interface and the end product.

Cost model